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The model of Psychosynthesis



Assagioli (1965) describes three distinct levels of consciousness within the human psyche:  the lower unconscious, the middle unconscious, and the higher unconscious (pp. 17-19).  A simple description relates these levels to time.  In the lower unconscious might be found energies and awareness associated with primitive instincts and passions, difficult dynamics or trauma from the past that have not been understood or integrated, and the fears, resistance and defenses that keep all this out of sight. In the middle unconscious might be found energies and awareness associated with current motivations and intention and the issues, dynamics and realities of the present time.  In the higher unconscious might be found energies and awareness associated with the undeveloped talents, abilities, potentials and resources that can be developed in the future.         

 When guided by the inspiration of the Higher Self, growth--be it personal, professional, spiritual, organizational, societal--seems to follow a spiraling and ever expanding progression through these three levels. Crisis catalyzes the process of change and heralds the need for healing, growth, or transformation. It shatters the comfortable, often automatic patterns of thinking or behaving and forces awareness to become focused in the present. "The call rings up the curtain, always, on a mystery of transfiguration--a rite, or moment, of spiritual passage, which, when complete, amounts to a dying and a birth. The familiar life horizon has been outgrown; the old concepts, ideals, and emotional patterns no longer fit; the time for the passing of a threshold is at hand" (Campbell, p. 51).

When attention is focused in the present in an attempt to resolve a problem or issue at hand, four questions might be asked for energy to keep moving purposefully along this three leveled, spiraling path.  

CEIS Spiral

A. What is the essential nature of the crisis or issue which confronts me in the present?  (Middle Unconscious).

B. What is the highest value I hope to express, or what vision or goal do I seek to attain, in the near future? (Higher Unconscious). 

C. What fears, resistence, or dynamic inner forces prevent me from being successful in this effort? (Lower Unconscious).

D. What specific steps must I take in the present to move toward the realization of my goal? (Middle Unconscious)

When one turn of the spiral has been complete, the journey of growth and the evolution of consciousness continues ever onward and outward.  What value, vision, or goal must I next strive to manifest in my life? What dynamic energies or forces within me might prevent me from doing this?  What are my next steps?

The model of Psychosynthesis offers a way of understanding how consciousness evolves. If a spiral is flattened and viewed from the side, a sine wave can be imagined that increases in amplitude over time – in height and depth.  With each new cycle of growth, awareness expands as to what it means to be more fully human, new talents and abilities unfold, and cherished goals are achieved. That's the good news!  The bad news, and the challenge, is that this gradually unfolding process depends on a willingness to dig ever deeper into the lower unconscious and confront that which is feared and that which impedes development and growth. "A conscious ongoing relationship to Self develops that will "as with all relationships" entail an openness not only to the joys of life, but to the pain, uncertainty, and limitations of life as well....enlightenment means...developing a committed relationship to the source of our being, a willingness to follow the call or vocation of our deepest truth no matter the experiences in which we find ourselves"(Firman & Gila, 1997, p. 181).

Bleak days do, in time, give way to sunny days. Difficult experiences become the testing ground of intention, commitment, and courage. New forms are created to embody and reflect the transformations of consciousness. Firm foundations for living are created that cannot be destroyed by either outer disaster or inner turmoil and, over time, individuals, groups, and communities approach the realization of their true potential. 

The transpersonal model of Psychosynthesis provides a way to understand how consciousness evolves. Psychosynthesis training offers specific methods and techniques with which to facilitate transformations of consciousness.  45 Psychosynthesis Institutes exist worldwide, 25 in the United States alone. A growing number of colleges and universities offer degree programs on both undergraduate and graduate levels with an emphasis in Psychosynthesis.  More than one hundred dissertations, articles, monographs, and an increasing number of books, address the application of Psychosynthesis in many areas of human endeavor–the arts (Assagioli, 1973; Harris, 1989; King, 1994), counseling (Brown, 1997a; 1997; Onken, 1991; Sliker, 1992), education (Chisholm, 1994; Mickey, 1999; Vargiu, 1971), medicine (Assagioli, 1967; Epstein, 1994; Ford, 1992; Gagan, 1984; Parks, 1973; Schaub, 1997; Slater, 1995), organization development (Levy & Merry, 1986; Taylor, 1984), religion (Hardy, 1989; Haronian, 1972; Hubig, 1974). For a listing of Institutes, centers and publications, the reader may contact Psychosynthesis Distribution, 274 North Pleasant St, Amherst, MA, 01002. (413)256-0772. E-mail: SynthesisC@aol.com.  Website: synthesiscenter.org.


     "Emotion, which is suffering, ceases to be suffering as soon as we form a clear and precise picture of it." Ethics. Spinoza

Why do people carry photos of family or friends in their wallets or have them displayed at home or at work? Photos are reminders of loved ones, of enjoyable places, of things highly valued.  How are mirrors useful?  They reveal whether or not clothing, hair or makeup are worn in such a way as to make the best possible impression on others.  Photos and mirrors reflect elements of the outer world that cannot easily be seen, that remain outside the normal field of view.  Mandala art is a method that can provide a view of the inner world, the unconscious domain of feelings, drives, desire, needs, patterns, pain, and inspiration. 

The Sanskrit word mandala simply means "circle".  In religious practice and in psychotherapy it refers to circular images that are drawn, painted, modeled or danced (Jung, 1972). Mandala art in many forms has been used throughout the world as a process of selfexpression, in the service of personal growth and spiritual transformation. Tibetan Buddhism has employed it for thousands of years to capture images of the deep unconscious, and symbols for the countless demons and gods it believes both plague and uplift humanity ( (Brauen, 1997; Lauf, 1976).  Navajo sand painters use the circle as the frame for their drawings and in their healing rites (Congdon-Martin, 1999; Sandner, 1979). Native Americans use the Medicine Wheel, a mandala form, to connect to and be inspired by earth energies and the wisdom of nature (May & Redbergy, 1996; Underwood, 000). Mandala art is said to have the capacity to activate the regenerative and curative powers of the mind, and also open the heart to the healing power of unconditional love (Arguelles, 1995; Cornell, 1994; Fincher, 000).

How are mandalas created?  A circle must lightly be drawn on a sheet of paper or on a canvas.  It can be filled in spontaneously, letting the drawing emerge step-by-step in a creatively unpredictable way, like doodling.  Or, the circle can be filled in with special images that have come from deep relaxation, meditation, dreams, through techniques of visualization or mental imagery, or from altered states of consciousness.  Within the circle can also be captured important scenes from everyday life or objects of fascination from the world of nature.

Mandala art is a holistic tool for many reasons. The creation of these symbols involves many facets of the artist.  The body is involved in the mechanical act of drawing, and the nervous system is often experienced in interesting, new ways as fine motor skills are employed in the act of drawing. Mental patterns are reflected in the specific forms, structures, and architecture that emerge within the circle.  Feelings are expressed through and reflected in the use of color. The completed mandala is often a beautiful and wholistic snapshot of what is going on within the psyche at the time, and reflecting on the interacting elements within the art expands awareness of these intrapsychic elements.

What is the value of mandala artwork?  First, the act of drawing these symbols shifts attention from the outer to the inner world. This inward attunement can be relaxing, refreshing, and energizing regardless of the subject of the art.  Second, creating mandala art is a private process of selfexploration and selfexpression that requires no outside help.  Third, as the ability to interpret mandalas improves, the artist discovers how mental, emotional, or spiritual energies flow or how they are blocked, where resistance lies, what defenses are at work, in what roles or patterns s/he is stuck.  Fourth, mandala art can be a vehicle through which to acknowledge failure, celebrate success, portray inspiring events from which much can then be learned.

Fifth, mandala art can connect the artist to his or her Higher Self. One of life's greatest challenges is to discover and nourish the deep springs of wisdom that flow within. Creating mandala art affords a process through which the presence of this inner genius can be felt and a channel through which a dialogue with this Self can occur. Sixth, mandala art can reveal the patterns and cycles that operate in life if the drawings are made regularly and then viewed as a sequence.   Last, mandalas are powerful images to share with others. Through them, inner truths can be shared with family and friends in honest and open ways. The gift of such deep revelation can encourage, if not teach, loved ones how to connect with and share their own inner depths.

Creative Explorations of Inner Space: The CEIS Process

According to Maslow, above, Transpersonal psychology is interested in helping people tap into "something that is more inclusive than the individual person or which is bigger than he is".  According to Gerard, Psychosynthesis"refers to a process directed toward the integration and harmonious expression of the totality of our human nature--physical, emotional, mental and spiritual".  The CEIS process was developed by the author in an attempt to help clients accomplish these worthy goals in a brief period of time (Brown, 1997b). The product of 27 years' counseling and consulting experience applying the theory and methods of Psychosynthesis, the CEIS process provides participants with a period of preparation for the inward adventure, guides them in the exploration of an issue or topic of concern with a variety of techniques and through a variety of states of consciousness, and leads them to the integration of Self guidance through inspired action in the world.

Each technique can be  used by itself or in conjunction with others to identify, illuminate, understand, address and transform any specific issue and concern. Blank paper is needed on which to write and draw. Colored felt tip pens, colored pencils, oil pastels or crayons are required as well. The CEIS process takes about an hour to complete.

Step 1: Solitude/preparation.  The most important first step is to create a supportive environment, a sacred space, in which to do the process.  A quiet and undisturbed location is required.  Unplug the phone, put out the cat, hang a  "DO NOT DISTURB" sign on the door.  Taking time to prepare for such an inner exploration can  lead to a sense of disidentification, objectivity and role distance.

Step 2: Deep relaxation. Beginning to relax with eyes closed, focus attention  away from thoughts, worries and concerns. Focus simply on the natural rhythm of  breathin-breath, out-breath; in-breath, out.  A sense of peace and well-being, a calm and centered presence, can develop in about five minutes.

Step 3: Reflective thinking. With eyes closed, choose a topic or question to explore in depth.  Then, with eyes open, write the topic of interest down in one sentence on the top of the paper. Examples:  "Why am I angry at X"; "How can I tell Y what I need"; "What must I do to complete project Z?" Then take about 10 minutes to reflect in writing about this topic and detail everything known about it.

If it is difficult to choose a specific topic, another approach is simply to make a list of five current activities or issues of interest or concern. Rank order them, #1 being most important. Write about this topic for 10 minutes.  Using the technique of reflective thinking can lead to focus and mental clarify.  It can help develop concentration and get mental energies flowing all in the same direction. 

Step 4:  Receptive thinking. With eyes closed, sit quietly in a receptive mode and now let deeper thoughts and feelings flow into awareness. Consider the reactions this topic provokes in self and others and the interpersonal dynamics it stimulates.  Then write these receptive thoughts down. Repeat the process two more times. Using the technique of receptive thinking can help develop empathy and insight.

Step 5:  Visualization. With eyes closed, breathe deeply a few times.  Then summarize in one sentence all that has been written.  With open eyes, write the sentence down. Now summarize the sentence in one word and write it down. With closed eyes, take a few deep breaths. Allow an image or a mental picture to come to mind to symbolize the word that has been chosen. Let the imagination have free rein.  Do not criticize or debate what comes but, rather, accept and focus on the first image that comes to mind. Notice its size and shape and color; what is foreground, background; what kind of environment or context the image inhabits, and anything else that seems significant about the image. 

The image can be something from the real world.  It can be a caricature or a figure. It can be something remembered, a geometric figure, anything at all. Notice the emotions the image stimulates and pay attention to the feelings it evokes. This step takes no more than a minute or two.  Using the technique of visualization can lead to the development of imagination, it can lead to inspiration and to a broader perspective on how the inner and outer worlds relate.

Step 6:  Mandala art.   Now  draw a circle on the paper. Using this circle as a frame, but not necessarily being limited to staying within its circumference, make a  drawing of the image seen in imagination. It is good to first make a quick sketch first with pen or pencil, then color it in with crayons, colored pencils, felt tip pens, oil pastel crayons, or water color.

Take as much time as possible to do the drawing1020 minutes is about normal.  Creating symbolic art can be a very satisfying, rewarding, and enjoyable process. Do not be concerned with the artistic value of the drawing, however.  If the people drawn are simply stick figures, for instance, no matter. If the horse looks like a large dog, so be it! Intellectual judgments or perfectionistic criticisms can prevent the symbolic drawing from emerging in a fluid and authentic manner, not to mention spoil the fun. It only matters that a colorful symbolic representation of the image seen in visualization winds up on paper. Using the technique of mandala art can help develop the capacity for pattern recognition and enhance the capacity for creative selfexpression.

Step 7:  Cognitive analysis. Now analyze the drawing in detail in writing.  What is the symbol in the circle?  What feelings does it evoke?  What do the colors mean? What more is known from the art about inner fears, hopes, concerns? Using the technique of cognitive analysis can lead to the further development of understanding and reason.

Step 8:  Inner dialogue.   With eyes closed, take a few deep breaths.  Relax and focus again on the inner image.  See it clearly, feel connected to it emotionally. Remember what's been written and all that it means.  Then ask this question out loud, directed toward the visualized image, in exactly this way:  "What have you come to teach me at this time in my life?"

New thoughts, insights, and awareness--sometimes startling, always meaningful–can occur in an auditory way. It is as if the image is answering the question.  Let the transmission go on for as long as possible, then document these thoughts in writing in quotation marks.  Repeat the question two more times to take the process even deeper.  Using the technique of inner dialogue can lead to the development of intuition.

Step 9: Symbolic identification or psychodramaNow stand up with eyes closed and allow the image to return again into awareness, but now imagine it in front of you and to be body size.  Take one step forward and enter the image. Become it physically somehow.  Allow movements or gestures to occur.  Assume whatever postures that help to connect, identify with, and become the image completely.  Let sounds, noises, musical notes occur if possible, as the image is dramatized and enacted in a freely spontaneous, even exaggerated manner.

Identified with the image, then see yourself in front of you, your normal, physical self and, as the image, give yourself a message subvocally but moving your lips and tongue. When this is done, sit down and document everything that has happened and everything that has been learned from the experience.  Using the technique of symbolic identification can lead to more expressive uses of the body, new sensory sensations, and provides a necessary behavioral component to creative explorations of inner space. It can also assist in the development of empathy and compassion.

Step 10: Homework or strategic planning. Take some time to reflect on everything that has happened during the CEIS process.  What can be done with all that has been experienced and learned? What homework can be done  that will ground and integrate it and move the resulting energies into daily life?  Write the word "Homework" on the paper and come up with at least three small steps that can meaningfully flow from this work--three practical and real steps to take. Defining specific homework can lead to the development of motivation and commitment.

Step 11: Closure. Put a date on the mandala and hang it up in the environment somewherein the bedroom, on the refrigerator, on the wall at home or work. Frequently viewing it can help the intuition remain open and flowing.  Because it is out in the open and visually exhibited, reflecting on it can allow conscious and unconscious elements within the psyche to continue to interact, further insights can be documented, and it is less likely that the homework will be forgotten. 

Step 12: Sharing.  Find someone trustworthy with whom to share the whole experience.  Let a loved one also be a keeper of the important and meaningful insights and inner guidance you received during the CEIS process. Sharing helps develop a network of support for these and future efforts in growth and transformation, and from it can come excellence in action long after the experience is complete. 








1) overwhelmed

 frantic, driven,  absorbed in work

solitude, alone time,

role distance,

  2) stress, tension


physical illness,
anxiety, low,
productivity, fear

relaxation training,
stretching exercises,
breathing techniques

ccalm, centered, present, alert,

3) unfocused,

 low job satisfaction,
unclear priorities

reflective thinking.
journal writing

mental clarity

4) poor decisions


errors in judgement,
personnel problems

active listening,
rereceptive thinking,
synoptic statements




5) narrow minded

 tunnel vision, fixed attitudes, lost in detail

hypnosis, visualization,
guided imagery,

imagination, inspiration

6) shy, timid,
fear of communicating


 playing the victim role


use of images,
illustrations & art


pattern recognition,
creative self-expression,
authentic self-disclosure

7) ungrounded or excess

lost in meaningless
activity, gossip,

analytical skills




8) too rational

distant, cold,

 inner dialogue


9) too assertive


generates hostility,
resentment from others

psychodrama, symbolic
role playing



10) missed deadlines,
low morale

unclear values,
priorities, goals

strategic planning


11) forgetful

missed deadlines



12)  self-doubt,
 low self-esteem



support, personal excellence


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